Indoor Marijuana Horticulture
by Jorge Cervantes,
The new edition is completely rewritten, beginning to end. The classic
"Indoor Bible" puts all the latest information on indoor cultivation at
your fingertips. Learn how growers maximize yields, harvesting more than
a pound of connoisseur quality bud per 1000w bulb every two months.
Includes precise color drawings and photos of numerous plant problems, a
troubleshooting chart, four case studies, weekly checklist, calendar,
glossary and index.
The book is packed with extensive information on hydroponics, including
the Sea Of Green, lighting, soils & soilless mixes, CO2, insect, spider
mite, fungus & disease control, fertilizers, nutrient disorders, seeds &
seedlings, seed companies, plant care, mother plants, pruning & bending,
determining sex, odor control, drying, harvest, medicinal use, safety
200 color photos
200 b/w drawings, charts & graphs
420 pages 5 1/2" x 8 1/2"
WHILE SUPPLIES LAST!
Indoor Marijuana Horticulture
TABLE OF CONTENTS
IMH Index pages 1-5
IMH Index pages 6-10
GO TO THE BOTTOM OF THIS
PAGE FOR A SAMPLE OF SOME
OF THE COLOR PHOTOS
Indoor Marijuana Horticulture Covers:
Step-by-Step guide to:
Setting up grow rooms
Setting up light systems
Setting up light movers
Setting up ventilation systems
Planting ideal gardens
Growing perfect clones
Breeding & beyond
Indoor Marijuana Horticulture: The Indoor Bible is the best-selling book
on indoor marijuana cultivation in the world. This is why growers dubbed
it "The Indoor Bible". All editions of the book have been bestsellers
since it was first published in 1983. The book is packed with simple
how-to examples and step-by-step instructions that both novice and
advanced growers use successfully. If you want to read only one book on
indoor growing, this is it!
Jorge exceeded all of our expectations with his new work. The book has
everything anybody could possibly want to know about growing cannabis
indoors. It is especially strong on new technology including hydroponics
and high intensity lighting. The sections on plant nutrient problems,
insects, spider mites and diseases especially fungus are extremely
informative. For example, he dedicates four pages of detailed text and
two color pages (8 color photos and drawings) exclusively to spider mite
control. Click on "see more pictures" to the left of the cover to view
just a few of the 39 life-like color drawings and photographs that
illustrate specific nutrient (fertilizer) problems. Four case studies
detail everything the growers did from beginning to end, including the
cost, space and watts employed and actual yield. The index is
particularly well done. He is so proud of his new book, that he
personally offers a "money back guarantee". See "author comments". This
book has always been a top seller, for us, and judging from the runaway
sales the first month of publication, the trend continues. We have sold
more copies of this book than any other indoor marijuana cultivation
book in history. To date, we sold foreign rights in the United Kingdom,
Australia, France, Germany, Spain, and Netherlands.
My work is accurate and well researched. I have interviewed thousands of
growers and toured hundreds of grow operations around the world in my
25-year career. I am so sure you will love Indoor Marijuana
Horticulture: The Indoor Bible that I PERSONALLY OFFER YOU A MONEY BACK
GUARANTEE. If you are not completely satisfied with this 2001 Edition,
send it back to the publisher (VPP, P.O. Box 1034, Camas, WA 98607) with
proof of purchase within 30 days and I will send you a money order for
the purchase price, no questions asked.
Jorge Cervantes is a world-renowned expert on marijuana cultivation,
hydroponics and gardening. Cervantes puts more than twenty-five years of
expert cannabis growing knowledge at your fingertips with numerous
books, articles and photographs. His expert advice has helped hundreds
of thousands of growers worldwide turn simple effective indoor and
outdoor horticultural techniques into high-yield gardens.
In "Jorge's Rx", his question/answer column in HIGH TIMES magazine that
is read by more than a million growers every month, Cervantes solves
grower's problems with definitive clarity. Cervantes also continues to
write numerous feature articles in HIGH TIMES and magazines from
Germany, Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
Multilingual Cervantes continues to travel the world researching
cannabis. His favorite research locales include Australia, Canada,
Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland and the UK.
Table of Contents
Indoor Marijuana Horticulture
Free Grow Info!
Safety and Security!
Thermal Imaging Devices
Marijuana as Medicine
Indoor vs. Outdoor Horticulture
About Grow Rooms
Setting Up the Grow Room - Step-by-Step
Chapter Two Error!
Light, Lamps and Electricity
Light, Spectrum and Photoperiod
PAR and Light Spectrum
Water-Cooled Lamp Fixtures
Air-Cooled Lamp Fixtures
More Free Growing Light
Setting up a Light Mover Step-by-Step
High Intensity Discharge (HID) Lights
About HID Bulbs
Metal Halide Systems
Construction and Operation
Lumen Maintenance and Life
Metal Halide Ballasts
Metal Halide Bulbs
Outstanding Metal Halide Bulbs
High Pressure Sodium Systems
Operation and Construction
Life and Lumen Maintenance
HP Sodium Bulbs
HP Sodium to Metal Halide
Metal Halide to HP Sodium
Mercury Vapor Lamps
Construction and Operation
Tungsten Halogen Lamps
LP Sodium Lamps
About Electricity Consumption
Setting up the HID System - Step-by-Step
Super Security Tips
Soil and Containers
Cutting and Seedling Cubes and Mixes
Growing Medium Disposal
Container Shape, Size and Maintenance
How to Pot a Seed, Step-by-Step
Water and Nutrients
Sodium - Chloride and Water Quality
Misdiagnosed (Nutrient) Disorders
Nitrogen (N) - mobile
Phosphorus (P) - mobile
Potassium (K) - mobile
Computer Nutrient Mixing
EC - CF - PPM
Nutrient Solution Composition
Soluble Salts Range Chart
Building Your Own System
Three Easy-to-Build Hydroponic Systems
Flood and Drain System -
Top Feed Container System -
Top Feed Tubular System -
CO2 Emitter Systems
CO2 Generator Systems
Other Ways to Make CO2
Compost and Organic Growing Mediums
Baking Soda and Vinegar
Setting Up the Vent Fan - Step-by-Step
Pests, Fungus and Disease
Sprays and Traps
Chemical fungicides, insecticides and miticides
Do not apply these substances to cannabis. ??
Insects and Spider Mites
Bees and Wasps
Caterpillars and Leafhoppers
Leaf Miners - drawing of adult fly and damage to leaf
Fungus Gnats - photo in roots, close up drawing, life cycle
Mealybugs and Scale
Fungus and Disease
Botrytis (gray mold) Bud Mold
Foliar Spots and Fungus
Stages of Growth
Seeds and Seedlings
Cannabis indica, C. sativa and C. ruderalis
"Feminized Cannabis Seeds"
Clones and Cloning
Cloning for Sex
Pruning and Bending
Hash and Oil Making
Seeds and Seed Companies
Seed Company List
Seeds and Seedlings
Case Study - Soilless Mix in Grow Bags
Case Study - Backyard Dirt in Buckets
Case Study - Sea of Green in Flood & Drain
Charlie and Claire
Case Study - NFT Hydroponics
Calendar and Checklist
Appendix - Conversion Charts and Tables
The purpose of this book is to give a simple, complete, description of
basic gardening techniques cultivators from North America, Europe,
United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand use to grow marijuana indoors
today. High Intensity Discharge (HID) lamps have made indoor marijuana
horticulture, the art and science of growing plants, expand all over the
world. Since the 1980s, growers have been cultivating large quantities
of dynamite marijuana in the privacy and security of their own home. All
information contained in this book has been tested by growers and proven
successful. We do not advocate growing marijuana or breaking the law. We
are simply reporting on the state of indoor cannabis cultivation.
Many factors should be considered when cultivating marijuana indoors.
The horticulturist will need to monitor and alter all environmental
factors and understand the needs of the plant to have the best possible
crop. Which environmental factors have indoor horticulturists found to
be most important for a productive crop? What are the most common
obstacles faced by indoor gardeners? What is a respectable yield? These
questions and thousands of others are answered in the following pages.
This book takes the reader through a simple, yet intensive, thought
provoking, step-by-step process that shows exactly how millions of
indoor growers cultivate cannabis indoors under HID lamps.
Icons with text are included to help you remember important points.
*cannabis leaf icon* Cannabis Clues: are given for a quick, easy
reference. They are easy-to-remember guides. They are tried and true
practices that work for growers all over the world.
*handcuff icon* Security Alert! is all about staying cool and avoiding
problems with the authorities.
*big bud icon* Super Size Secrets tell you how to get the absolute most
from your efforts.
*smart guy icon* Technical Stuff is information that is beyond basics.
Learning this information provides background and depth on the subject.
*shocked guy icon* Warning! Tell you to be cautious to keep from
committing common errors.
Case studies follow the text. They show exactly how different growers
grew super smoke for pennies a day. All of their growing statistics -
watts, varieties, calendar, cost, harvest weight, etc. - are also
listed. See how growers invest a minimum of cash and harvest pound after
pound of outstanding bud 365 days a year!
A garden "Calendar" and "Checklist" in the back of the book lend
additional organization for all indoor horticulturists.
Two excellent reference books that all indoor marijuana horticulturists
should have on hand are: the Marijuana Grower's Guide, by Mel Frank and
Marijuana Botany, by Robert Connell Clarke, both from Ronin Press. The
books are classic cultivation and breeding guides. For disease and bug
problems, refer to the monumental text, Hemp Diseases and Pests -
Management and Biological Control, by John McPartland, Rob Clarke and
David Watson, distributed by Oxford University Press. To stay up-to-date
with the newest and the best techniques, read Cannabis Canada, High
Times and check out the Internet. Sites such as: www.hightimes.com,
www.cannabis.com, www.marijuana.com, www.bluntbros.com, www.hempbc.com,
www.cannabiscanada.com and news groups such as www.alt.drugs.com. Also,
read such publications as Organic Gardening, Sunset, Mother Earth News
and the gardening section of the local newspaper for valuable background
www.marijuanagrowing.com is packed with current information on marijuana
cultivation. It has pages and pages of up-to-date cultivation
information, plus Jorge's articles and numerous tips on growing in
The Internet -
Free Grow Info!
Super Size Secret: Information and velocity at which it travels, is the
most important new innovation marijuana growing.
Marijuana growers always find a way to share grow show intelligence. The
Internet allows millions of growers all over the world to share
information. US growers can still ask and answer anonymous grow
questions on line and download information about cannabis use. Some of
my favorite web sites are:
www.lightingsciences.com, measuring light
www.naturescontrol.com, beneficial insect information
www.eharvest.com, the Canadian agriculture search engine
www.garden.com, which is laden with garden information
www.hightimes.com, the official High Times Magazine site
www.marijuana.com, great site full of current cannabis info.
www.cannabis.com, for specifics about cannabis
www.hydroponics.com, excellent Canadian site on hydroponics
www.hydromall.com, wonderful Canadian site updated regularly
www.greenair.com, outstanding site about plant sciences and hydro.
www.altgarden.com, hydroponics & indoor/greenhouse info.
www.cannabisworld.com, is a must see site
http://www.seedbankupdate.com, rates seed companies
Internet information can be packed with problems. All growers and
"authorities" have the same status on the Internet, and can post "facts"
to their site or news group. Many times these unverified poorly
researched "facts" are either self-serving or not true. Always ask
yourself if the information you are reading makes sense. If it sounds
too good to be true it probably is. I often surf through many sites and
pages before finding something worth retaining. "Free" often means the
material is sales oriented. News group postings are often incorrect.
However, the news groups provide an excellent forum to share grow stories.
The Internet was developed by the DOD (Department of Defense) in the
latter half of the last century. These government spooks developed the
world wide web of computers to intrinsically track your every "click".
The most obvious means of avoiding being tracked is to use public e-mail
boxes like firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com. E-mail from
these mailboxes is more difficult to track. Smart growers, especially
from the US, do not e-mail about growing or surf grow sites on a
computer located in a grow house. Remember, today, a person never knows
who is taking a peek at transparent e-mail. "Firewall" software alerts
and protects the user against another party tracking a surfing path or
to unauthorized entry into their computer. Ask at your local software
store for security software to keep unwanted computer spooks subdued.
Warning! Don't frequent marijuana sites or talk shop on the net if you
have a grow show near your terminal.
Technologically astute growers use a proxy (remote) server to hide their
IP (Internet provider) information. Using a proxy is the first step to
hiding your computer's return address. For more information on computer
security for growers, hit the site www.overgrow.com. The site also has
much information on nearly 200 different varieties of cannabis.
Cannabis is the only plant that produces chemicals called cannabinoids,
however, with gene splicing and genetic engineering, it is only a matter
of time until cannabinoids are added to other plants. Cannabinoids are
ingredients unique to cannabis; the psychoactive cannabinoids are
responsible for the mind-bending effects of marijuana. Some cannabinoids
get you high. Around 40 cannabinoids have been confirmed to exist, but
most are not psychoactive. Here is a short rundown on the six most
D9 THC, the main ingredient that gets you high, is called:
D9-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol. All cannabis, whether industrial hemp or
drug marijuana, contains some D9 THC. Industrial hemp cannabis contains
infinitesimal amounts while dried flower tops (buds) of potent marijuana
can contain up to 25 percent D9 THC. In potent varieties of marijuana,
perhaps all of the mind-bending effects are derived from D9 THC.
D8 THC is found in very low concentrations in cannabis. It also gets you
high, but there is so little D8 THC in most cannabis that researchers,
breeders and growers concentrate on the more abundant and potent D9 THC.
To simplify matters we will refer to both D9 THC and D8 THC as THC.
Cannabidiol, known as CBD, also appears in virtually all varieties of
cannabis. The amount of CBD varies enormously, from a trace to more than
95 percent of all cannabinoids present in a plant. CBD generally has a
sedative effect regarding the high you experience. CBD, when combined
with THC, tends to postpone the beginning of the high, but, the good
part is that CBD can make it last twice as long. Whether CBD increases
or decreases the force of the high is subjective and must be discerned
by each smoker.
Cannabinol, or CBN, is produced as THC oxidizes or degrades. Only a
trace of CBN exists in fresh bud. Stored and cured tops or hashish have
higher levels of CBN, that has converted from THC. Marijuana with high
levels of CBN generally make the toker feel disoriented and often sleepy
or groggy, often referred to as a stupefying high. At best CBN contains
only 10 percent of the psychoactive potency of the original THC.
Tetrahydrocnnabivarin, called THCV, is the shorter three-carbon propyl
that replaces the five-carbon pentyl chain. This compound is associated
with the fragrance of the plant. In other words, very pungent smelling
marijuana normally contains THCV. Warmer temperatures bring out more
smell. THCV is found in very potent marijuana that originated in
Southeast and Central Asia as well as regions in Africa. Concentrations
of THCV usually make the high come on quicker and disappear sooner.
There is still much research to do on this cannabinoid.
Cannabichromene, or CBC, may make up to 20 percent of the cannabinoid
profile in a plant. Little study has been done on this cannabinoid. So
far, researchers believe that it may interact with THC to make the high
Technical Stuff: For a complete background on cannabinoids, including
chemical diagrams, resin profiles and production of cannabinoids, see
the classic book, Marijuana Grower's Guide, by Mel Frank, Redeye Press,
1997, 330 pages, $19.95.
Safety and Security!
Growers and tokers have been made into "the enemy" by the American
government in the War on Drugs. It is the job of law enforcement to
arrest the flower-growing enemy. To wage this war on US citizens, law
enforcement wields an impressive arsenal, including draconian laws and
high tech surveillance gizmos.
Security Alert! Never tell anybody about any garden.
Control where you go. Stay away from other grow houses, wild parties,
real criminals, etc. Always take a friend's car to the grow store and go
seldom. Travel with others whenever possible. Your car is easy to trace
and follow. Keep your consumption habits reasonable; don't show large
cash income. Buy large assets, houses and cars, over time. Don't ever
tell anybody you are growing or even joke about growing. Always have a
job and a reason for your activities. Keep a low profile.
Security Alert! Don't talk on the phone about any garden.
Keep your home and surrounding property in good repair. Make sure the
house is painted, lawn mowed and garbage picked up. Keep electrical use
to a reasonable amount and keep the air clean around the house. Have
very few visitors and keep to yourself. Have minimal conversations with
Never trust anybody, friends, family - brother, sister, children, even
your mother! In America, "Land of the Free", a grower can go to jail
just for giving another grower advice! The RICO conspiracy laws were
enacted to break up the Mafia. Today RICO laws are used against growers
and non-growers alike. Under the law, a person that advises a grower to
"water in the morning" is equally guilty of growing the marijuana
garden, even if he never saw the garden. RICO laws tread on the very
essence of the American Constitution.
Security Alert! Don't show anybody any garden.
Never visit or telephone other growers. If visiting another grow room,
that grower can implicate you with circumstantial evidence and you are
considered as guilty as the grower!
Law enforcement has sophisticated telephone bugging devices, super
sensitive directional microphones, infrared scopes, thermal imaging,
etc. They can also subpoena telephone, Internet and electrical company
records. Intimidating cops coerce electric company employees to break
the law and give them the records. Tracking telephone numbers, including
location, is very easy. There has been more than one case where law
enforcement illegally acquired telephone records and placed illegal taps
on garden store telephones. Police use telephone records to target grow
houses. Always use pay telephones with an untraceable phone card or pay
with coins. Lazy narcs also watch garden store parking lots and follow
Security Alert! Pay bills in cash or with money orders.
Pay all bills and make all purchases with cash. Cash tells no tales and
leaves no trails. Pay for mail order merchandise with a money order.
Have the merchandise sent to another address.
Develop garden photos in a large city in a quick develop store.
Remember, the film is not yours! Do not give your telephone number on
the return film information. Photos should not show incriminating
evidence. Don't photograph people, tattoos, addresses, etc.
US residents should never show their grow show to anyone!!! Never tell
anyone you are growing. Deny growing to everyone, always! You
immediately change from a Weed Warrior to a helpless victim subject to
extortion once anybody knows you are growing in the USA. When the cops
arrest a "friend" that has seen your grow show to, they can legally use
deception and intimidation to squeal on you. Beware! Interrogations can
last for months!
Law enforcement rewards jealous, hateful and vindictive "friends",
lovers and enemies for implicating a grower under the RICO laws.
Hundreds of thousands of growers have had their lives ruined in a matter
of moments on testimony from a vindictive "friend".
Electric bill should be about the same as the neighbors and previous tenants
Garden and grounds should be tidy and similar to neighbors
No light leaks whatsoever
Use friend's car to visit grow store
No noise - humming, fan on/off at night, etc. - is audible day and night
No strange odors including ozone smell
All electrical outlets, fuses and connections must be grounded. Inspect
electrical connections for signs of heat - blackened wires, melted
connections and smelly wiring.
Have a current fire extinguisher rated to put out wood, paper, grease,
oil and electrical fires.
When law enforcement has "evidence" of a growing operation, they look
for more. They look at telephone, electric and shipping records for
starters. A thermal imaging camera is most often used at this point.
Occasionally they use dogs that are trained to sniff out marijuana. The
information is used against the grower to obtain a search warrant. If
there are plants discovered at the house, they continue to build the
case against the grower by using anything the grower says. The police
collect most of the information on the grower from the grower!
Surround your property with a bed of cedar shavings instead of bark
chips in the flowerbeds. Cedar shavings disguise other odors. Use an
ozone generator to neutralize the marijuana fragrance. Have a ready
reason for extra electrical consumption. Unload grow supplies a little
bit at a time or from within a locked garage.
Security Alert! Never admit to anything.
Absentee owners are the best landlords. Make sure home inspections are
done before you move into the home and the rental agreement should allow
for an advance notification of inspections. Put the telephone,
electricity, garbage, etc. in a friend's name. Grow in a rented home. If
you own the home, it is often forfeited if you are suspected of growing.
Curb noise and odors by sealing and insulating the grow room with "sound
board". Similar to sheet rock, soundboard muffles sounds well. Install
rubber feet or grommets on fan feet. Build an extra room or box (allow
for air flow) around ballasts to muffle noise. Place a thick pad under
ballasts to absorb vibrations. In-line fans are much quieter and
efficient than squirrel-cage blowers. If light escapes from vents, give
venting a 90-degree turn and paint the vent black where it turns. This
will disappear all unwanted light. Ozone-treated air should discharge
through a roof vent or chimney to decrease ground level odors. See
"Ozone Generators". Be careful when installing a ceiling vent or when
venting out chimney. Light shining out the chimney and around roof vents
looks very suspicious!
Security Alert! Stop pungent smells with an ozone generator.
"All electric" homes are few and far between. Electrical use information
from previous tenants might be available from the electric company. On
the average, growers in the US can use one 1000-watt lamp per bedroom.
This means a two bedroom home can host 2000 watts a three bedroom home
3000 watts, etc. Unhook the dryer and other appliances that draw much
electricity. Turn the water heater down to 120 degrees and take showers
at the gym.
Stealing power from the electric company causes even more exposure than
paying for it! The extra risk is insane and it's wrong to steal!
Fortunate growers use the Equalizer, a device that makes electricity
more efficient, see box. Manufactured by Western Water Farms, in BC,
Canada, 1-800-533-9301, Ext. 1, will lower the amount of current
recorded that the line is drawing. In other words, route your grow room
electricity through this device and pay half the electrical bill. Very
slick little unit! The reports on electricity savings on this device
have been incredible.
Security Alert! Do not steal electricity!
Thermal Imaging Devices
Now relatively inexpensive (about $13,000) thermal imaging devices are
becoming more affordable for smaller police forces. Thermal-imaging
devices have been used legally to measure the heat signature escaping
from structures. This invasive "evidence" is used with other "evidence"
to secure a search warrant.
A recent Supeme Court decision declared the use of thermal imaging
devices unconstitutional. Such heat sensing devices cannot be used to
secure a search warrant for the interior of a private building.
Super Size Secret: Grow efficiently and maximize all effort and expense
to harvest a minimum of 0.5 grams per watt of light in the flowering
room every month.
One last bit of simple security detail: grow efficiently! Growers should
harvest 0.5 grams of dried bud every month for each watt of light in the
flowering room. Growers that do not harvest this much are cheating
themselves and must master the basics of growing. Always grow fewer than
99 total plants. Federal laws require a five-year minimum sentence with
no parole when convicted of growing 100 - 1000 plants.
Marijuana as Medicine
Cannabis has been used as a medicine for thousands of years. Just now
has it come to the forefront of the War on Drugs as doctors, activists
and the majority of citizens in many states are demanding the
reclassification from a Schedule I drug that has no therapeutic value to
a therapeutic drug.
Marijuana buyer's co-ops are springing up all over the world. In the US,
the famous Proposition 215 in California was the one that led the way to
legalization. Now voter referendums in eight more states have called for
legalizing marijuana as medicine. Numerous other states are considering
changing their laws through parliamentary procedures.
Dr. John McPartland was kind enough to allow publication of the
following review of current medical marijuana information. For an
extensive list of new and old titles on marijuana as medicine, check out
At least ten books about the therapeutic uses of marijuana have appeared
recently. Most have been written by drug-war-partisans, either promoters
of medical marijuana (such as Cannabis in Medical Practice, edited by
Mary Lynn Mathre, and Marihuana, the Forbidden Medicine, by Lester
Grinspoon and James Bakalar), or prohibitionist partisans (Marihuana and
Medicine, by Gabriel Nahas and colleagues).
Two recent books were sponsored by presumably unbiased organizations -
the British Medical Association (Therapeutic Uses of Cannabis) and the
Institute of Medicine, a branch of the US National Academy of Sciences
(Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base). The IOM book is
more up to date, and supplies an inexhaustible reference section for
further reading. The BMA book is more succinct and easier to read. Both
books discuss therapeutic uses in detail, including charts,
illustrations, and comparisons to conventional pharmaceuticals. Again,
the IOM book dives deeper and provides more citations, whereas the BMA
book manages to be concise yet cover more ground (e.g., asthma,
hypertension), and presents nice table summaries of controlled studies.
Law and political considerations are covered better by the IOM book. The
BMA book provides a nice glossary for lay readers and physicians with
short-term memory loss.
A new book by Cristian Rätcsch, Marijuana Medicine, is absolutely
beautiful, illustrated with a plethora of fabulous black-and-white
photos and drawings. It contains lots of new information concerning the
ethnobotany of cannabis (published by Healing Arts Press, Rochester,
Schedule II and III drugs are equal to Marinol®, or synthetic THC
produced by Roxane Pharmaceuticals, Columbus, OH.